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Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship

2006

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Table of Contents

Executive Summary Members of the Blue Ribbon Committee Final Report and Recommendations Blue Ribbon Committee Independent Report Lilly Rodriguez, Beth Youhn: Blue Ribbon Committee members Vivian Price, Barbara Cox: Tradeswomen Policy Council Advisors Appendix: Original Letter to Surveyees Graphic Representation of Survey Data Results

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Executive Summary Report on Women in Apprenticeship Background
The Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship was established at the January 2003 California Apprenticeship Council (CAC) meeting to address concerns over the lack of women in the construction trades. As it stands today, between the years 2000 and 2006, women apprentices in the construction trades have not surpassed three percent of the total apprentices. Realizing that half the population was left out of a labor pool that is not sufficient to replace the retiring skilled workforce, the committee moved forward to find out why. This report includes their findings and recommendations. This summary highlights the key factors involved.

Scope of Report
A survey developed by the Department of Education and the Blue Ribbon Committee was taken by 400 tradeswomen - 46 percent apprentices and 54 percent journey level - and included representation from 35 trades and occupations. Two public hearings Northern California, August 23, 2003 Southern California, October 11, 2003 Information from hearings used to develop survey

Analysis of Survey
Recruitment When women first heard of 60 percent over age 25 apprenticeships 81 percent over age 21 How women first heard of apprenticeship 41 percent largest single factor of how - through family or friends women heard of apprenticeship The percentages show limited exposure of apprenticeship to possible candidates. Retention Participated in pre-apprenticeship 25 percent program Would like to have mentors 66 percent Would like to be mentors 55 percent Experienced sexual harassment 55 percent Felt uninformed about their rights 42 percent concerning sexual harassment A majority of the women felt unfamiliar with the culture of apprenticeship and would have liked to have known how to better prepare themselves. Felt there was equal training in 81 percent apprenticeship classes Felt there was equal training in the 57 percent workplace Improved training for women in the workplace would give them a better chance to become valued employees and make a good living, thus staying in the trades. Leadership Women rated leadership opportunities for 79 percent men as high Women rated leadership opportunities for 20 percent women as high Women in leadership positions are needed to gain greater acceptance of women in the trade careers.

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In addition to the low num bers of wom en recruited into trade apprenticeships, the graduation rate for wom en apprentices is also very low.

Recom m endation s
Recruitm ent Apprenticeship com munity should collaborate to design and conduct a targeted and aggressive outreach cam paign to recruit wom en, utilizing journey wom en and apprentices from all ethnic backgrounds as role m odels. Retention Apprenticeship com munity should partner with organizations and agencies that provide services to enable wom en to succeed in apprenticeships, including tradeswom en focused non-profit agencies and constituency groups. Each apprenticeship program should develop a wom an's com mittee or support group for wom en, a journey-apprenticeship m entoring program and a "pointperson" to help fem ale apprentices navigate the system . All apprenticeship programs and em ployers should regularly conduct effective sexual harassm ent/discrimination prevention and appropriate workplace behavior training for all apprentices, supervisory personnel and em ployees. Training com mittees and coordinators should track, evaluate and report on quality and quantity of on-the-job training. They should also establish procedures to ensure that fem ale apprentices are assigned to journeypersons who are willing and allowed to teach them . Leadership Training com mittees, em ployers and unions should identify qualified and m otivated wom en to m entor, train and place into leadership positions.





Call to A ction
W e respectfully request the CAC to hold an open forum at the next quarterly m eeting to discuss and adopt actions necessary to increase the num bers of wom en in apprenticeship in the construction trades. DAS is com mitted to perform annual Cal Plan reviews and follow-up with program s that are not in com pliance.

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Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship Members
Anne Quick - Chair ABC Golden Gate Chapter Sandra Benson Van Bourg Law Firm John Bullock Carpenters Training Committee Debra Chaplan SBCTC Ed de Brito Cement Masons Jt. Apprenticeship Jenny Erwin USDOL, Women's Bureau Alexandra Torres Galancid WINTER Leo A. Garcia AGC Apprenticeship Training/Trust Mark Gonzales No. CA Cement Masons JATC Richey Gore BACSIC Jeannie Holmes CAC Comissioner Larry Kay, CAC Stanton, Kay &Watson Sue McNiel ABC Southern California Barry Noonan CCC Chancellor's Office Lilly Rodriguez Painters & Allied Trades Susie Suafai Workforce Development Program Al Tweltridge CAC Commissioner Howard Verrinder C.Overra & Company Jim Westfall San Diego Electrical Training Trust Mary Wiberg CA Commission on the Status of Women Beth Youhn Tradeswomen Inc. Dick Zampa CAC Commissioner

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Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship
Final Report and Recommendations At the January 2003 California Apprenticeship Council (CAC) meeting, Chairman Larry Kay established the Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship to address the concerns over the decline in the last several years of women in apprenticeship. The Blue Ribbon Committee has provided the opportunity for different sectors of the apprenticeship community to work together for the betterment of apprenticeship training in the State of California. Chairman Kay specifically challenged the committee to examine three areas of interest: recruitment, retention and leadership. The Blue Ribbon Committee held its first meeting on April 23, 2003. Chair Jeannie Holmes appointed three sub-committee chairs. Sue McNiel, ABC Southern California, Recruitment Chair; John Bullock, Carpenters Training Committee for Northern California, Retention Chair; and Mary Wiberg, California Commission on the Status of Women, Leadership/Promotion Chair. At the October 2004 CAC meeting, the CAC directed that the Blue Ribbon Committee should become a sub-committee under the Equal Opportunity in Apprenticeship Standing Committee. The EOA Standing Committee presents this report with its recommendations to the full CAC. The information gathered for this report is the result of the following; Blue Ribbon Committee meetings Two public hearings Northern California, August 23, 2003 Southern California, October 11, 2003 A Survey developed by the Department of Education and the Blue Ribbon Committee that was distributed throughout the state to tradeswomen.

Recommendations
Recruitment 1. Become involved in apprenticeship orientation Promote short-term pre-apprenticeship programs o Emphasize the realities of being in the trades and what it requires to establish a successful career in the trades o Use hands-on demonstrations whenever possible to give potential applicants a true feel for what they will be doing on the job. o Prepare females for the physical requirements of the work and provide basic safety training Involve female presenters and showcase them as role models



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2. Budget for aggressive targeted advertisement Radio, television, newspapers, magazines Home improvement centers and supermarkets Neighborhood Penny Saver Brochures and Videos recruitment materials should include women and people of color; show women at work doing the job, emphasize the benefits, wages and career ladder available through the trades; be bilingual

3. Plan presentations for PTA meetings School Board meetings Education conferences Schools and Churches Correction facilities Welfare to Work, Work Source and One-Stop Centers Helmets to Hard Hats Job Corp, Ameri-Corp, Youth Build, and California Conservation Corp Girl Scouts of America Community-based Organizations

4. Partner with groups for apprenticeship prep programs Partner with organizations and agencies that provide services that allow women to succeed in apprenticeship o Community-based training programs o High school construction academies o Community college construction classes o Technical and vocational schools o Tradeswomen-focused, non-profit agencies and consitiuency groups o Provide internship and job shadowing opportunities



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Retention 1. Establish support for women apprentices Develop a strong mentor program with training available to individuals that have an interest in becoming mentors. Mentors may be men or women who can be supportive to women registered apprentices. Schedule women to attend classes of related training along with other women, when possible, to help them avoid feeling isolated and alone. Each apprenticeship program should develop a women's committee or support group that will relieve isolation and provide resources and allies to female apprentices. Provide a "point person" to be available to help female apprentices navigate the apprenticeship experience. Division of Apprenticeship Standards should maintain a list of resources on their website for women to access on appropriate workplace behavior.

2. Educate all female and male apprentices All approved apprenticeship programs should provide diversity training, along with a component of jobsite or workplace discrimination prevention training to all apprentices. Sexual harassment prevention training, using best practices appropriate to the trades, should be taught in all apprenticeship and journey level upgrade programs. Ensure that all female and male apprentices know what their rights and responsibilities are and how to exercise them. Provide female apprentices with "tools for survival" (e.g., understanding workplace culture, expectations and appropriate behavior, finding allies, speaking up, etc.) to realistically prepare them for their first days on-the-job and thereafter.

3. Educate industry personnel on appropriate workplace behavior Training committees should work to develop educational training for employers to assist them in recruiting, retaining, training and advancing female apprentices. Employers and apprenticeship programs should have a clear written policy stating that sexual harassment in any form will not be tolerated, outlining the complaint procedure, and should train supervisory personnel on policy implementation. Employers should train all their employees on discrimination and sexual harassment prevention in the workplace.



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Ensure that all on-the-job supervisors, forepersons and middle managers are trained on "appropriate" jobsite behavior, so that they are prepared to set the standard of behavior for their workers. Train apprenticeship instructors to be sensitive to the issues facing female students. Training committees and coordinators should work with employers to effectively track on-the-job training and establish procedures to ensure that female apprentices receive equal training and treatment on the job in all work processes. Training committees and coordinators shall ensure that female apprentices are given journeymen who are willing and allowed to teach them, and do not spend more time on tasks such as flagging and clean-up than male apprentices.

4. Conduct and evaluate exit interviews Conduct exit interviews of female apprentices who leave the program. Conduct interviews of female apprentices who did not journey out in their trade for the past five years. Apprenticeship programs should annually compile and evaluate these exit interviews, and work with the Equal Opportunity in Apprenticeship Committee to adjust and improve their programs in order to retain more female apprentices.

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Leadership/Promotion 1. Provide advancement opportunities Hire women instructors, directors and coordinators. o Recruit and aggressively seek out females for promotion o Identify and mentor women who are interested in teaching and other leadership positions o Offer training opportunities as more women take on leadership roles and demonstrate that they are good leaders, others will follow open the doors

2. Appoint women to every leadership level Recommend women to become involved in jobsite supervisory roles. Recommend women to run for elected positions in their committees or unions. Encourage women to become mentors. Recognize and acknowledge women who have contributed and succeeded at all levels of the apprenticeship experience.

3. Promote additional leadership opportunities Encourage female apprentices to participate in continuing education (instructor certification, personal enrichment and degree programs). Provide female apprentices with the opportunity to attend support groups and trade conferences. Assist female apprentices in developing a career path that includes leadership positions.

The Blue Ribbon Committee recognizes that this issue is not new to the apprenticeship community and will not be solved with this report. However, the California Apprenticeship Council should continually review and renew its support for recruiting, retaining and promoting women as registered apprentices in accordance with Federal Law and for addressing the declining numbers of women entering the trades in California.

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Independent Report
July 26, 2005 TO: Equal Opportunity in Apprenticeship Committee and Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship, California Apprenticeship Council, Quarterly Meeting, July 2005

FROM: Lilly Rodriguez, Beth Youhn: Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship, Vivian Price, Barbara Cox: Tradeswomen Policy Council Advisors (Beth and Barbara also represent Tradeswomen, Inc.) RE: Report on Confidential California Tradeswomen Survey

CONTENTS: I. INTRODUCTION II. ANALYSIS III. RECOMMENDATIONS
I. INTRODUCTION

At its October 2003 meeting, the Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship, under the leadership of Chairperson Jeannie Holmes, undertook a major project for the California Apprenticeship Council a confidential survey of female apprentices and journeywomen on issues of recruitment, retention and leadership of tradeswomen in California. This project was inspired by alarm at the precipitously declining numbers of women in apprenticeships and in the trades, and our search for strategies to reverse that negative trend. The Division of Apprenticeship Standards statistics from April 2005 show the participation of women in construction apprenticeships at an appalling 2.9% (1,623 out of 55,012). The Blue Ribbon Committee's Sub-Committees on Recruitment, Retention and Leadership developed the survey questions, and Commissioner Al Tweltridge's staff at the California Department of Education put the survey online, mailed out 20 hard copies to each apprenticeship program, and compiled the results. Special thanks to Mary Lou Naylor and her hardworking staff and interns at the Department of Education for a tremendous job well done! At the February 2005 CAC meeting, Lilly Rodriguez and Beth Youhn, tradeswomen activist members of the Blue Ribbon Committee, presented a Preliminary Report on the Survey, highlighting several key findings from the raw data. With substantial assistance from Vivian Price and Barbara Cox, also longtime activists from the tradeswomen community, we present this more comprehensive report to the

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apprenticeship community for a fuller view and analysis of the findings from the Survey, and to make recommendations to the CAC and apprenticeship leaders based on those findings and our analysis. Survey Respondents Four hundred women completed our survey, both online and by mail, between September 8, 2004 and January 1, 2005. Women in 35 different trades and occupations responded. We are grateful to all the organizations and individuals who disseminated and publicized the survey, with special thanks to the Electricians, Carpenters, Plumbers, Pipe Fitters and Sheet Metal Workers. Women in these five trades comprised 58% of all respondents. 57% of respondents had some college/university education and 15% are degreed. 18% had trade school training; 15% had completed high school or GED; 3% had not completed high school. 56% of respondents are 41 and over; 26% are 31-40; 17%, 21-30; 1% under 20. 78% of respondents are union members. 46% are apprentices; 54% journey level. 12% have just begun working in a trade; 10% have 12 years in their trade; 37% have 3-10 years, and 41% have 11 years or more in their trade. 92% would recommend apprenticeship programs to other women.



Our survey was comprised of fifty questions with nearly half of the questions allowing for open-ended responses. We, therefore, have 170 pages of narrative responses to mine for strategies to address women's declining participation in apprenticeships and departure from the trades. Respondents were forthcoming and generous with their opinions and suggestions. Inspired by "Respondent 68" who challenged us to do something "fruitful" with this survey, we believe that, with a will to make positive changes, this survey can become a blueprint for action to assist our apprenticeship programs to recruit, retain and advance more women into skilled trades careers in California. Respectfully Submitted By: Lilly Rodriguez and Beth Youhn, Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship Vivian Price and Barbara Cox, Tradeswomen Policy Council Advisors

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II. ANALYSIS

Recruitment 1. Connections are still the key to learning about the trades instead of schools or apprenticeships. Question #3 in the Confidential Survey of Women Apprentices and Journeymen shows that connections to friends or family members is the single largest means of finding out about apprenticeship at 41%, while finding out through high school career fairs and counselors are 0% and 1% respectively. Apprenticeship program recruiters assisted only 7% of respondents. We can improve these statistics! Many of the women in the survey reported that they would be interested in being recruiters. They should be encouraged to speak to their community groups and schools, and supplied with materials that they can use to get the word out. Resources of the Blue Ribbon Committee, the Tradeswomen Policy Council, and other longstanding advocates like Tradeswomen, Inc., can help with recruitment strategies. 2. Pre-apprenticeship is the second largest means of learning about apprenticeship (12%). Promoting hands-on experience to prepare women for the trades is one of the keys to strengthening recruitment. It should be noted that 25% of respondents completed a preapprenticeship program while waiting to enter apprenticeship. 3. The time between applying and entering apprenticeship can be very useful to prepare women to succeed in apprenticeship. Seventy-five percent reported that their first day as an apprentice occurred within one year of deciding, and 31% achieved their "first day" within one month of their decision. Some respondents suggested that apprenticeship programs provide candidates with a checklist to help enhance these applicants' entry into the trades, with pre-apprenticeship as a strong recommendation. 4. Because 37% of the women in the trades found out about apprenticeship when they were over 30, we need to make sure that we continue to reach this group by supplying information to organizations that are helping women find work, like community colleges, adult learning centers, Job Corps, One-Stop Centers, military bases, and other places that are likely to have good candidates for the trades. For the remaining respondents, 23% were between 25 and 30 when they heard about apprenticeship; 21% were 21-25; and 11% were 18-20. Only 7% heard of apprenticeship in or before high school. 5. The strategy most often suggested by respondents for recruiting more women into the trades was outreach into the high schools (111), followed by advertising (37), role models (28), supporting women in the trades (26), and outreach into institutions serving the unemployed (18). Among the ways women reported finding out about apprenticeship was through brochures and media, including newspaper ads and articles. These materials and media presentations need to be inclusive and clearly show a commitment to the recruitment of women and people of color. Women also reported wanting to know how to better prepare themselves to succeed in apprenticeship. Retention 1. According to the survey, many women were unprepared for what they encountered in the culture of the apprenticeship. Orientation for women and men should provide a realistic picture of the trades, what they might encounter, and how they can deal with some of the challenges in a positive way. From the very beginning, women and men apprentices 12

should be informed from the leadership of their rights and obligations during apprenticeship and who to contact to address their concerns. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported that they would like a mentor and 61% had no gender preference for their mentor. It is interesting to note that 27% report that they are currently mentors and 52% would like to be a mentor. A full 62% stated they would participate in a forum to meet with other tradeswomen (such as a women's committee or group that meets regularly); 13% would not; and 25% were not sure. 2. Sexual harassment remains a critical issue for retention. Fifty-five percent of women said that they had experienced sexual harassment in their trade (Question 31). The second major factor for women dropping out of apprenticeship (Question 20) was a hostile environment and/or discriminatory treatment. The avenues for resolving sexual harassment incidents remain unclear to many in the trades. An exceedingly high percentage of women reported they were completely misinformed or poorly informed about remedies for sexual harassment. According to question 25, graph 341, 42 % of women felt they were either completely misinformed or were not well informed about remedies for harassment. While 39% said they were highly informed, many women reported that when they did file grievances, those grievances were bungled, mishandled, or not processed correctly. Sexual harassment prevention training should be taught in all apprenticeship programs as well as journeylevel upgrade training. There is clearly a problem in how the sexual harassment prevention training is presented and enforced. The CAC should offer best practices suggestions for sexual harassment prevention training based on realistic experiences in the trades and monitor this training. Many respondents suggest that all contractors need to do sexual harassment and discrimination prevention training with both management and jobsite supervisory personnel. The CAC should assist with and monitor this training, and the TPC and Tradeswomen Now and Tomorrow (the national coalition of tradeswomen organizations and advocates) can be a resource for best practice training based on trades experiences. 3. The greatest single factor for women dropping out of trades (Question 20) was lack of training, work, benefits, and income. Many of the women traced their lack of livelihood to unequal training on the job. Women report that as apprentices or journeylevel workers they often get the cleanup or material jobs while male apprentices or their colleagues get the skilled work. Basing our analysis on responses from Questions 27, 29 and 302, and graphs 36 and 383 our analysis revealed a huge gap between the quality of instruction that women reported in the classroom and during jobsite training. In apprenticeship classes, an overwhelming percentage of women (81%) felt they received equal training to men, and only 14% felt they did not. On the job, only 57% reported getting equal training while 33% described their on the job training as clearly not equal to male apprentices. In response to Question 50, respondent 145 said, "My biggest fear is becoming a journeyman and not learning anything as an apprentice". When asked to describe the single most important factor keeping a woman in the trade, 40% of the women answered that the need to make a good livelihood was the driving factor. When matched with the response in question 20, 18% of the women felt that the lack of work, lack of training, and therefore, lack of income was the major factor that

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could drive them out of the trade. We must take the issue of lack of equal training extremely seriously. Women apprentices felt that unequal training deprives them of a chance to be a valued employee, and women journeylevel workers felt that they are not given a chance to practice what they've learned over the years. This ties in with many women describing that they are the "last hired and first fired", and that their abilities are not acknowledged. The CAC's mandate is to make sure apprentices are trained not only in the classroom, but also on the job. Lack of proper training is a form of marginalization and discrimination, for it means that a woman has trouble making a livelihood in her trade. Only one respondent noted fairness and equality as a reason for staying in the trade. The CAC needs to educate apprenticeship programs, employer associations, unions, and contractors that they are liable for lawsuits if they don't treat all workers equally, and should monitor their programs for effectiveness. Here are some quotes from women regarding the problem of unequal treatment with men on the job: Respondent 24: "Women get assigned to "busy" work--e.g. sweeping, flagging-- much more often than men, then get laid off sooner, perpetuating the myth that women can't pull their weight. Many times women don't get a fair chance to prove they can do the "real" work, so apprentices don't get the training they need to succeed as journeywomen". Respondent 53: "The men basically ignored me. At lunch and breaks, I was pretty much invisible. I was rarely taken seriously so there was no great effort to waste time training me. I learned a lot from my brother and of course occasionally I would run into men on the job who felt that as long as I was there, it was the right thing to do to teach me as much as they possibly could. I am grateful for those guys". Respondent 95: "Almost daily-- for 14 years full time and for another 5 years of working during the summer between school years. Women are assumed to be dumb and weak. Running large electrical conduit is considered too hard for women, so it is difficult to gain experience in this area. It is especially unfair since it is much easier to run conduit 1 and a half inches and larger, for all the bending is done by hydraulic benders. Hand bending 1 inch or 1 and a quarter inch conduit is some of the hardest work electricians do, and the difficulty of the task is increased by low body weight. Women are much more likely to be stuck with such pipe runs while the men run the larger conduit. Women are often stuck doing trim (extremely boring and hard on your knees and back in the case of receptacles) or endless amounts of lighting (again--a job that most of the men hate because it is boring after a while and involves on ladders). The experience that my male co-workers obtained was incredibly more diversified than the experience of the average woman in the trade, both during apprenticeship and afterward". Respondent 116:

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"Last hired, first fired. Given menial jobs to do instead of proper training. Then being told I didn't know enough to do the work". Leadership Seventy-nine percent of respondents rated leadership opportunities for men as "high." Only 20% rated leadership opportunities for women as "high", with 47% rating women's opportunities as "low" or "none". This shows a significant difference in respondents' views of opportunities for future leadership participation in the trades among men and women. But many respondents were personally challenging the barriers to female leadership in the trades as 56% of them reported developing a career path for advancement. According to Question 43, 54% said they personally had been encouraged to be a leader, but 37% reported they had never been encouraged to do so. Fifty-six percent said they had a high or medium participation in political activities. According to Question 44, 64% of women said that they wanted to become leaders. This indicates an untapped source of future leadership for the apprenticeships that needs to be developed and mentored. Identifying and clarifying the pathways for leadership in apprenticeship and union affairs can make the process more open to women, and strengthen the power of our organizations.

III. RECOMMENDATIONS
Recruitment 1. Recruit and hire tradeswomen to be speakers and trainers on all outreach teams for apprenticeship programs. Draw from the resources of the Blue Ribbon Committee and the Tradeswomen Policy Council (TPC) or other longstanding advocates for women in the trades like Tradeswomen Now and Tomorrow (TNT) to help with recruitment strategies. 2. Make academic institutions accountable to give all high school seniors, (women and men), information on trade schools and apprenticeship programs as well as college, and train guidance counselors to offer that the trades are a viable option for both genders. 3. Promote and support hands-on pre-apprenticeship training programs that effectively prepare candidates for the rigors of the trades career and give consideration to the needs of women. 4. Increase recruitment through "One Stop" programs by requiring that at least one nontraditional option be offered to every female client.

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5. Develop partnerships between apprenticeship programs and those organizations and agencies that provide services that assist and encourage women to succeed in apprenticeship. Make a proactive effort to make sure they have up to date information on the requirements, dates, etc., for applying for the trades. 6. Ensure that all recruitment materials include women and people of color in all graphics, especially photos showing them working with the tools. Ensure that all recruitment materials emphasize the benefits, wages, and career ladders available through the trades and provide these materials in languages that reflect the intended diversity of the workforce. 7. Include in all media exposure (e.g. newspaper, radio, television, film, and internet) the commitment of apprenticeships to recruit women and diverse racial groups. 8. Create a checklist of suggestions that both women and men can use to enhance their acceptance into and success in the trade while they are waiting to get indentured into the program. Examples are: enlist in physical training activities, find work that is similar to the trade you are interested in, enroll in pre-apprenticeship or community college class that can help further your skills, make and maintain contact with an advocacy group, make plans for child care assistance and transportation, save up money to buy tools.

Retention 1. Orientations for women and men should provide a realistic picture of the trades, what they might encounter, and how they can deal with these challenges in a positive way. Involve tradeswomen and tradeswomen's groups in developing and providing these orientations. 2. The CAC should endorse the formation of women's committees in unions and apprenticeship programs. This is recognized as a best practices strategy by regional and national organizations promoting women's retention into non-traditional occupations. 3. Mentoring has proven effective in increasing apprentice retention rates and resource information on how to implement an effective mentoring program is available through organizations such as Tradeswomen, Inc. and WINTER (Women In Non-Traditional Employment Roles). Training programs should also provide a female "point person" to be available to help female apprentices navigate the apprenticeship experience and ensure all female apprentices know what their rights and responsibilities are and how to exercise them through the proper procedures and chain of command. 4. Sexual harassment prevention training should be taught in all apprenticeship and journeylevel upgrade training. The CAC should help those programs in need create better training on all levels, based on experiences appropriate to the trades, using best practices for sexual harassment prevention training in the trades. Both the Tradeswomen Policy Council (California) and Tradeswomen Now and Tomorrow (nationally) can be a resource 16

for best practices. Contractors need to conduct sexual harassment and discrimination prevention training with their management and all jobsite supervisory personnel. 5. The CAC needs to address the lack of equal training and treatment on the job by educating apprenticeship programs, employer associations, unions, and contractors that they are liable for lawsuits if they do not treat all workers equally, and by monitoring their training programs for effectiveness and compliance. 6. Conduct exit interviews of female apprentices who did not journey out in their trade for the past five years and incorporate exit interviews as a standard practice in the future in order to collect data to improve retention. Leadership 1. Recognize and acknowledge women who contribute and succeed at all levels of the apprenticeship experience, and utilize them as role models within the union and in the public arena. 2. Increase the number of female instructors and coordinators in all apprenticeship programs through proactive recruitment and mentorship. 3. Clarify, in writing, the steps and pathways for moving up through the career ladders of both union and jobsite leadership. For example, explain the committee system within the union and how it is related to moving into leadership, and identify the qualifications and hiring path for apprenticeship instruction. Follow-up 1. The CAC must continue to collect apprenticeship statistics, which delineate both the ethnicity and gender data for each apprentice, so that it is possible to track the participation of each group within California's diverse workforce. 2. The CAC should conduct bi-annual follow-up surveys to ensure these recommendations are actually implemented after adoption. The CAC should then identify the trades and programs that are performing well and those programs that are under-performing which require intervention and assistance.
(Footnotes)
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The numbered questions referenced above refer to the questions on the Confidential Survey. The graphs referenced above refer to Oscar Meir's pie charts and tabular analysis of the Confidential Survey.
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27. Do you think you received training equal with men during apprenticeship classroom instruction, 29. Do you think you generally receive equal training with men on the job? 30. Have you experienced unequal treatment compared to men on the job?)

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Appendix

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CONFIDENTIAL CALIF. TRADESWOMEN SURVEY: Now Due JANUARY 1, 2005 (PLEASE NOTE THAT DUE DATE HAS BEEN EXTENDED) October 22, 2004 Dear Women Apprentices and Journeymen in the Trades: We are asking your help by completing a survey intended to learn how to best recruit, retain and provide valuable experiences for women apprentices and journeymen. The California Apprenticeship Council's Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship, in partnership with the California Department of Education, created the enclosed survey. We are asking you to tell us, based on your personal experience, how future practices for women in the trades should be improved. We definitely plan to pay attention and apply what you tell us to the best of our ability. We would appreciate it if you would complete the survey right away. Some of the questions require check marks, while others require a written response. If you have any additional information that you wish to contribute, feel free to provide "Comments" at the end of the survey. By the way, the survey findings will be available at the California Division of Apprenticeship Standards Web site at http://www.dir.ca.gov/das/ das.html by February 1, 2005. This is a confidential survey, and there is no way to identify you. If there is any question that you think could identify you, such as your "What is your trade?" feel free to skip that question. The survey due date is January 1, 2005. We request that you complete the survey online. If you do not have a computer, you can use a computer free of charge at public libraries or ask a friend to use their computer for a few minutes. If, however, it is not possible to use a computer, you may use the mail method. On-line, go to http://www.insitefulsurveys.com/survey.asp?SI=14851627792 and follow directions to complete the Confidential Apprenticeship survey. Be sure you view the screen to include both the left and right sides, particularly for survey items 15 and 25. By mail, send your Confidential Apprenticeship Survey to: California Department of Education Alicia Fuller, ROCP & Workforce Development 1430 N Street, Suite 4503 Sacramento, CA 95814

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If you have any questions, contact the California Department of Education, Alicia Fuller (916) 324-5676 [email protected] or Mary Lou Naylor, (916) 445-5620 or [email protected] Thank you for your assistance. Jeannie Holmes, Chairperson Blue Ribbon Committee on Women in Apprenticeship, California Apprenticeship Council ______________________________________________________________________________

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Graphic Representation of Survey Data Results

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California Apprenticeship Council Blue Ribbon Committee On Women in Apprenticeship
Women Apprentices and Women Journeymen:
Confidential Survey (January, 1 2005)

Total of 400 women responses.

Demographics

1. What is your age? (Check only 1 box): 381 out of 400 responses.

2, 1%

28, 7% 38, 10%

44, 12% 214, 56%

Ages 18-20 Ages 21-25 Ages 26-30 Ages 31-35 Ages 36-40 Ages 41 +

55, 14%

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2. What is your level of education? (Check only 1 box that indicates the highest level.) 381 out of 400 responses.

10, 3% 25, 7% 59, 15% 59, 15%

Less than High Schoo completion High School or GED completion Trade School

70, 18% 41, 11%

1 to 2 years of College 3 to 4 years of College 4 + years of College Other (please list)

117, 31%

3. If you selected `Trade School' for Item 2, please list the trade school(s). 282 out of 400 responded.

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4. How many years in current trade? (Check only 1 box.) 377 out of 400 responses.

46, 12%

36, 10% 156, 41%

Up to 1 year 1 to 2 years 3 to 4 years 5 to 7 years 8 to 10 years 11 years +

62, 16%

33, 9%

44, 12%

5. What is your trade? (Please List) 374 out of 400 listed responses.

6. What is your trade level? (Check only 1 box.) 372 out of 400 responses.

Journeyman

202

54%

Apprentice

170

46%

0

50

100

150

200

250

24

7. Are you a member of labor union? (Check only 1 box) 380 out of 400 responses.

No

84

22%

Yes

296

78%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

8. Have you developed a career path plan for your advancment? (Check only 1 box.) 369 out of 400 responses.

Yes

205

55%

No

84

23%

Not Sure

80

22%

0

50

100

150

200

250

25

Recruitment
9. At what age did you become aware of Apprenticeship programs? (Check only 1 box): 387 out of 400 responses.

12, 3% 15, 4% 42, 11% 145, 38%

Before High School High School Ages 18-20 Ages 21-25

83, 21%

Ages 26-30 Over 30

90, 23%

10. Do you remember your high school counselor telling you about Apprenticeship? (Check only 1 box.) 388 out of 400 responses.

Yes

8

2%

No

380

98%

0

100

200

300

400

500

26

11. How did you first become aware of an Apprenticeship program? (Check any boxes that apply.) Maximum of 361 out of 400 responded for a total of 385 multiple answers.

Read Flyer/Brochure

25

7%

Family Member/Friend in Industry

148

41%

Participated in a Pre-Apprenticeship program

42

12%

Through High School Career Fair

1

0%

Through High School counselor

2

1%

Others (explain)

167

46%

0

50

100

150

200

250

27

12. What helped you take the step to become an Apprentice? (Check any boxes that apply.) Maximum of 349 out of 400 responded for a total of 541 multiple answers.

Enrolled in a PreApprenticeship program.

67

19%

Role Model

44

13%

Support from family

73

21%

Support group for females in the trades

25

7%

Apprenticeship program recruiter

25

7%

Attracted by Wages/Benefits

174

50%

Encouragement for government/education

45

13%

Explain or name the group from above
0

88

25%

50

100

150

200

250

28

13. How much time was there between your decision to become an Apprentice and your first day as an Apprentice? (Check only 1 box.) 365 out of 400 responses.

33, 9%

53, 15%

59, 16%

59, 16%

1 to 6 days 1 to 4 weeks 1 to 12 months 1 to 2 years More than 2 years
161, 44%

29

14. What did you do in the time space between your decision and beginning your Apprenticeship? (Check any boxes that apply.) Maximum of 306 out of 400 responded for a total of 419 multiple answers.

Finished high school

9

3%

Got a GED

14

5%

Kept contact w ith a person w ho supports w omen in trades Completed a PreApprenticeship program Earned money to buy apprenticeship tolls. Supplies/ dues initiation fees/ etc. Cleared Up Personal Barriers*

49

16%

77

25%

77

25%

75

25%

List Personal Barriers from above

118

39%

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

* Personal Barriers: transportation, revoked drivers' license, lack of family/ social/ peer support, limited English, childcare/elder care, relationship problems, health issues, legal issues, incarceration, housing, wage attachment, unresolved legal issues, drug testing, fear of showing up at work on time, physical stamina, fear of basic math, lack of confidence, etc. 30

15. How did you pay for the initial safety gear/ tools/ supplies/ dues/ initiation fees needed to start your Apprenticeship? (Check any boxes that apply.) Maximum of 373 out of 400 responded for a total of 433 multiple answers.

Sav ings/ tax re fund/ e arne d income tax cre dit

98

26%

Gift from Family/Frie nd

36

10%

Loan from a family/frie nd

26

7%

Paid for e ducation, public or community program Paid by association or union sponsore d programs

47

13%

39

10%

Not Applicable

37

10%

Othe r (e xplain)

150

40%

0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

200

31

16. Would you recommend Apprenticeship programs to other women? (Check yes or no then explain.) 380 out of 400 responses.

Yes

352

93%

No

28

7%

Why or Why Not Response

98

26%

0

100

200

300

400

17. What do you think can be done differently to help recruit more women to the trades? 340 out of 400 responded.

Retention
18. What is the single most important factor keeping you in your trade? 354 out of 400 responded. 19. What, if anything, gave you the confidence you could succeed in the trades, which are considered nontraditional for females? 325 out of 400 responded.

20. If you are considering dropping out of your trade, what is the single most important factor that makes you consider dropping out? 299 out of 400 responded.

32

Mentors:
21. Did you want to have a mentor? (Mentor: A wise and trusted counselor) (Check only 1 box.) 364 out of 400 responses.

Yes

242

66%

No

68

19%

Not Sure

54

15%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

22. What gender do you prefer in a mentor, if any? (Check only 1 box.) 353 out of 400 responses.

Female

106

30%

Male

31

9%

No Preference

216

61%

0

50

100

150

200

250

33

23. Are you a mentor? (Check only 1 box.) 363 out of 400 responses.

Yes

98

27%

No

195

54%

Not Sure

70

19%

0

50

100

150

200

250

24. Do you want to be a mentor? (Check only 1 box.) 351 out of 400 responses.

Yes

182

52%

No

65

18%

Not Sure

104

30%

0

50

100

150

200

250

34

Women's Forums or Committees:
25. If there were a forum to meet with other women in the trades, such as a women's committee or group that meets regularly, would you participate? (Check only 1 box.) 364 out of 400 responses.

Yes

227

62%

No

46

13%

Not Sure

91

25%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

26. Should the forum be specific to your trade? (Check only 1 box.) 365 out of 400 responses.

Yes

117

32%

No

83

23%

No Preference

165

45%

0

50

100

150

200

35

27. Here are some factors that may or may not keep you from participating in a women's forum. Rate your reactions. (Check only 1 box for each item) Total responses for each category, from top to bottom are 328, 332, 340, 354, 318, 353, 365, 372, and 94. 21% 68 12% 40 17% 59 27%
Dista nce From Hom e

Conce rn: Ne ga tive Atm osphe re Conce rn: re se ntm e nt, backla sh from Ma le Cow orkers Union, Assoc., Em ploye r pa sse d m e a sure s

165 50%

95

29%

212 64%

80

24%
Definitely Would Not Participate

208

61%

73

21%

%

95 16%

191

54%

68

19%

Might Participate Sometimes %

Tim e Aw a y From Hom e

50 25%

219

69%

49 15%
Uncertain

Tim e Of Ye a r (holida y, he a vy w ork se a son)

87 18%

204

58%

62

18%
%

Me e ting On W ork Nights

65

264

72%

36 10%

Me e ting During W ork Hours

228 34% 32 41 21 22% 44%
0 75 150

61% 106 28% 38 10%

Othe r (Ple ase Spe cify in Ite m 28)

225

300

375

450

36

28. Other: 135 out of 400 responses listed `Other' as a factor for Item 27. 29. What would your preferred meeting time or circumstances be for participating in a women's forum? 301 out of 400 responses.

Participation and Information Retention:
30. Did you ever participate in a Pre-Apprenticeship program? (Check only 1 box.) 365 out of 400 responses.

Yes

112

31%

No

253

69%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

37

31. Did you complete a Pre-Apprenticeship program? (Check only 1 box.) 350 out of 400 responses.

Yes

107

31%

No

243

69%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

32. If you answered `Yes' for Item 31, how do you think it benefited you? 110 out of 400 responded.

33. If you answered `No' for Item 31, why didn't you complete it? 148 out of 400 responded.

38

34. How well do you think you were informed about the Apprenticeship program you were entering in the following areas? (Check only 1 box.) Total responses for each category, from top to bottom are 369, 374, 374, 369, 376, 374, 352, 373, 374, and 378.

Contact with appropriate support staff Remedies for any harrassment Challenges to new Apptentice Cost: supples, safety gear, tools, dues, fees Difficulty of work

121

33% 96

26% 92 25%

60

16%

144

39% 75 20% 97

26%

58

16%

144

39%

116

31% 80 21% 34 9% 15%

180

49% 123

33%

54 10%

12

3%

190

51%

134

36% 38 14%

14 4%

Highly Informed % Somewhat Informed % Not Well Informed % Completely misinformed %

Distance from work

186

50%

126

34% 51

11 3%

Unpaid Time

130

37% 103 29% 89 25% 30 9% 16%

Long Hours

171

46%

139

37%

58 9%

5 1%

Benefits

228

61%

106

28% 35

5 1%

5%
Pay Scale

257

68%

98

26%18 5 1%

0

75

150

225

300

375

450

39

35. Please provide additional information about Item 34, if desired. 126 out of 400 responded.

Gender and Equality:
36. Do you think you received training equal with the men during Apprenticeship classroom instruction? (Check only 1 box.) 379 out of 400 responses.

Yes

306

81%

No

52

14%

Not Sure

21 5%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

37. Aside from training, have you experienced unequal treatment compared to men during apprenticeship training? Describe. 326 out of 400 responded.

40

38. Do you think generally receive equal training with men on the job? (Check only 1 box.) 357 out of 400 responses.

Yes

202

57%

No

119

33%

Not Sure

36

10%

0

50

100

150

200

250

39. Have you experienced unequal treatment compared to men on the job? Describe. 300 out of 400 responded.

40. Have you experienced unwelcome sexual harassment in you trade? (Check only 1 box.) 361 out of 400 responses.

Yes

198

55%

No

163

45%

0

50

100

150

200

250

41

41. Was childcare an issue for you? (Check only 1 box.) 359 out of 400 responses.

Yes

102

28%

No

257

72%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

42. If `Yes' to Item 41, what childcare arrangements helped you to stay in your trade? 105 out of 400 responded. 43. What else should people know about so that females succeed in the trades? 301 out of 400 responded.

Leadership
44. Describe your personal interest in leadership? 305 out of 400 listed responded.

42

45. How would you rate the leadership opportunities? (Check only 1 box for each item.) Total responses for each category, from top to bottom are 353, 350 and 346.

Women

70

20%

120

34%

143

41% 20 6% 7 2%

Men

277

79% 64 18%

2 1%

Yourself

120

35% 127

37%

72 21% 27 8%

High % Medium % Low % None %

0

100

200

300

400

46. What is your level of participation in the following? (Check only 1 box for each item.) Total rpsponses for each category, from top to bottom are 356, 352, 456, 185 and 363.
17% 61 101 28% 109 16% 19% 66 101 29% 127 36%

Community work Committee work

31%

85

24%

58

Political

150 11% 24%

14% 107

30% 107 30%

92 26%

Employer association

20 26 44

95 51%

14%

High % Medium % Low % None %

Union 104 29% 99
0 100

27% 97

27% 63

17%

200

300

400

500

43

47. Have you participated in activities specifically geared to women? (Check only 1 box.) 366 out of 400 responses.

Yes

217

59%

No

129

35%

Not Sure

20

6%

0

50

100

150

200

250

48. Have you ever been encouraged to be a leader since you were recruited into or entered your trade? (Check only 1 box.) 367 out of 400 responses.

Yes

200

55%

No

136

37%

Not Sure

31

8%

0

50

100

150

200

250

44

49. Do you want to become a leader in your current or future career? (Check only 1 box.) 365 out of 400 responses.

Yes

235

64%

No

48

13%

Not Sure

82

23%

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

50. We would really appreciate any additional comments you have: 212 out of 400 responses.

45

*