Free Second Amended Complaint - District Court of Federal Claims - federal

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Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 1 of 18

Claimant Name DIN

Social Security #
Client File No. us CNMI FICA 00192

EXHIBIT 1: FORM 843 Claim for Refund and Request for Abatement

2003 2004 2005 -/

2006 \/(

EXHIBIT 2: Copy of Passport

Copy of Social Securi Card
FORM 2848 Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representation


Page \


Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 2 of 18

For 843
(Rev. November 2005)
çiapartmeqt of .~a' Treaslif.
Inti3ma .Riivêriue. SeA-ice

586 57 3970
Claim for Refund

and Request for Abatement
~ See separate'lnstructiôns..

OMS No. 1 s45..024

Use Form 848 ohly if your claim involves (a) one or additions Do not

your cläim isfor. An ov:emayment ofincorne taxeSí
use. Form 843 if . An óveipayment of excise tMes r.eported on Fof.m(s)

to tax onïine 4a. . .
l1-C, 720; 730,01' 2290~

of the .taxes shown on line 3.à Qr (bJ a refunqor abatement of interest, penalties;

. A rèfpn.d fOf nòiítaxabJe !Jse (0.1' s¡ales) of fuel,' .or
Namé of claimant DING, BAOWEI
Address(lìtJpet; Street, iid roohJ or ,;LJite no,)
Your SSN or ITIN

'l .~


SpOLJs,ê's$SN órrTN
, .
. .


CIO Fallon Law Offce, PMB 504, PO Box 10000 City ortöwn; state,. andZIP codØ Saipan, MP 96950 NtiWsa~d8~qd~S' ~~~n on return ifdiffekent fi'm apqVe

Eipïoyeridéntificatiön humber (EIN)




Períod. From


a separate tonn;$43for each tax period Ol I 01 12 to. 12005

10003 96950

Daytime te1ephorieiiurtbêr
), Aiount to berefunded or abated





3a Type oHsx¡ penalty; or a.dd~¡ön to tax:
~l EmploYnient 0 Estèlte OGift 0 EXèii3ê(~êß ,instruttíons)

o Pênalty~IRÇ eeCtIqÏ1, ~
b Type of return fied

D 706 0 709D94Ô ~ 941 0943 0945 D990-PF
4aRequest for abatement or refund of:
o Interest ~$.a result .of.IRS erro.rS gi'd,elay¡§,

(see iiistructicïns):

o 4720

o other (specio/

DA. penalty òpadqíti6ri tptâXas-ê fesUIt of ertol'6ÖúsaClvicé trorrthe IRS, b DatêS:;ôf p~yrierit ll
5 Explanation andaddií¡onal.cliiíms~ Ex¡:lainwhy you believelhisclaim should be allowed, and show the

computation of your

tax refund orabatemerttöfir't¡áres,par'a.l:y;oradditi$.i' tgtai( Ifyoü rtee more sPcícê,attach aqrjitìt¡rìaLsh'eets.

A.ttached opinion letter.

04 i 61007



Signature. sign the: claim. Clajms:tiIed,by corporatitms must be. ac;;çompanjed by

If youárëfífir19' Forni S4A:o reqes a; rëfund'otabätemënf relating to' ajpihtretùm, böth~oU.änd YOUrspousé must signed by' a corporate oJfícerauthorlzecj:to.sign, andfhe signature must be

the off.oer'stltlt;. . '.

Under 'Pèïraltês öf ¡Jijur; I. déëlare;t!at"liÍle- éXinêd tlà;ëlwm, íriêludil\äCCPâiiiiigscledul" .' '. . . tieméiïts and, tothè 6esöfinòt knoWledge ard

beief,ifiS,tie¡ ;coréc¡ ârd eómpletë;' ... ."

Si~~åfut;~lfite;it~PP¡¡~;~ël~~~~by:£~Ll~~l~igQ;~¡;~~~---._-iï~;;~¡:~; --.---.. -. -- .cc c--c--c "C"cc.-. -cc C--CoC" -."." c.-..-cc .-c-.--.. c _-.,c.' 'c. .-. -. _-..-. '." -.." .-_--- .-. ..-c c_- -_'. -.-

/!!::I.:J~e.1___._~. _

6iit~C""_- ".----..- -.------"-".fl;m 843~ev. 11 ~¿oø$)

FQr.PrlvacyÁçt i;nc.Paperwark Fledu9tIOllActlipti(;,$ee sepçr.(eini;trl,ctions.


No. 1(!líi(lR



Page ~



a1. FederallD Number

Page 3 of 18


b. Serial number
g. Lac. code
h. Days out of
i. Cit. code


For Employees Record
2b. Local wage & salary
tax withheld (Chap 2)


a2. CNMI Tax ID no.

c. Name. address and zip code of employer

j.SIC 2300
i. Entry permit no.

2a. Income tax withheld


- G)

:i C'

)( Cl

W 0.

US-CNM Development Corporation
PMB 68, Box 10003
1. Wages, tips, other compensation
(Chap 7)

Saipan, MP 96950

Filed 07/29/2008

3. Social security wages

6. Medicare tax withheld


4. SoCial security tax withheld

d. Employee social security number
5. Medicare wages & tips

Last name
7. Social security tips


e. Employee first name and initial

f. Employee address and ZiP code
9. Advance EIC payment
11. Nonqualified plans
13. Statutry
. employee

10. Dependent care benefis
12a. See instructions for box 12

PMB 68. Box 10003

Document 12-5

Saipan, MP 9695()

I $

Form 2005




Wage and Tax

14a. Other







Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 4 of 18


(Rev. November20Q5).


586 57 3970
Claim for Refund

and Request for Abatement
II See separate'

OMB Nj). 1645-40::4.


abatement oOnterest¡ pealties;

61' adCi;tfonstoiax onïine 4a, . . ..
Do (lot

U$'e' Form 848 onlyif your claim involves (a) oneof thêtaxes shOwn on /ine$à or (b)a refund 'or

use. Form B43 if your cläim Is for..

..An ov.erpayment of income taxeSí

.. A rèfljfi' fÓf no.iíta¡'ale use (o.r sales)qffl;êl;.or
. An ol/elpayment of excíse faxes r.eported ön Form(s) l1-C, 720; 730, (jr 2290~ . ,. '.. ~



Nárnê of clairnant



'AddraSs'(nLirnpet:; Street, ¡indroqrn orStlitø nq:)

. .



CIO Fallon Law Offce, PMB 504, PO Box 10000 Clty bttöwn; State; andZIP codØ

Saipan, MP 96950

Nt~Sa~dg~aqttb$ ~~~n

Emi;ioyetkientificat¡ònnumbet 66-0536360 :
.Dyt¡nie telephoreiium9er


Saioan .


Perod. Prepare

10003 96950

öl1 retUrn ifqiffejfeïit from ¡¡f:óile


separete F'ormS43for eaoh taxperioq. 0;1 I 01 1,4 to. 12006

i ai


'to be refuiided 'orqbated


Sa Type oHax. penalty, or additiól to tax:

~l Er'Plöyi:etit GEstate DGift 0 EXcjiiø:(see,jnStruttiôrls)
b' Týpe of return fied '(see instructiohS):
o Penalty~lRÇs$Gtióh)l

o 706 D 709 0940. 1g94 i 0943. 0945, D9go\-PF
4'a Request forabatement or refund of:
o Jrite¡.r~t asa re-stHtofJRS errôr$ 9rt:,e!ays,

o 4720

D other (SPeci!Y

D A péî'alty öradtlítiqn 1:9. tâias:aresult of en;ane(u$.aaviëig fröm the IRS~

b Deté.. ofpayrieiit ~
5: Explanation and, addiÍìonalclaims~.Ëxi:lain: vlhyyou..believelhls .clalmshould'be.aJlowec:,.andshow thecomputationciryour
tex refui:d or apate'i:ei:tof irifere'St, petilty;o(aqaitlçJi tgt?X. If:Y9Ìl ii~ h19re sl'i3ge"ette;dtï atltlitrtirjaLsheets.

.At.tï:whed opinion. letter.




o 4 J e _,


'spoUse must


If you aréfil¡ri~:.Form .~,to request arefOnd:orâbatëtierif rélaHrtg to' ä.loihtrêtUrn, böthY'öu,and YOUr

accompanieQoyfhe off.cetstítle. . '.
sign: the: Claim. èialms.ñiedby corporationa-. must be'si-goed' by a

corporate offcerauthon.zedao.$jgn, and'the signatUre must be

belíef;,ifiini'ù,.eortéc, and dómplet;' .,. ..

Uiider'PèhaltêS öfpéijUl, l'dØólrithiit :Iliìl.. exámilÏèdths.,craiiT¡ iricf(jdin9;,accôìfi?~ri sèléduTés täeiTèiïtâ.. lld-,tö thê,bês ôfmy knoiledg,ll äïd

S¡~ñã~r;~friJ~:~t~PPÍi~;¡I;~'ët~m-æ~~lkllft;;;;r;~~~-q~"e~_._-_..- "-_.__æI~_._J, ~;r';i--. - -- -"-----_._._si~ti~r¡¡' -- -.~ -" c.-. -- '." c'..., -.-- -.- - .'.-.- -.. -. .-_._-, -"- -.-- ..-.." -7' '".C-- - .c- _.." -."''' -." -'. -. -." '.- - _. ".- - - - ."-''..- -.-...-"l=nr.PrlvaayÁai an~.PaperWQ~k R"eduçtJQn,ÄÇl.NQtl'c,'see i¡epar.le;iowlJctïns..

fiá.i;;"'- ,,-,".-"--'.--~.-'.-" '-d.
fJ:mr843 tRe'l' 11 ~:io.óii),

CQt,N~, itii'ipR



Page ij

a1. FederallD Number

~ 1;'1f
Copy 2


Page 5 of 18


b. Serial number
g. Loc. code

h. Days out of CNMI
i. Cil. code


!! CI

a2. CNMI Tax ID no.

c. Name, address and zip code of employer

00261 20

k. SOC
i. Entry permit no.

To Be Filed With

:i C)

US-CNMI Development Corporation PMB 68, Box 10003
1. Wages. tips. other compensation
(Chap 7)

j.SIC 2300


)( eu



2a. Income tax withheld

2b. Local wage & salary

Saipan, MP 96950

tax withheld (Chap 2)

Filed 07/29/2008

3. Social security wages



4. Social security tax withheld

d. Employee social security number
5. Medicare wages & tips

6. Medicare tax withheld

e. Employee first name and initial

8. Allocated tips
10. Dependent care benefits
12a. See instructions for box 12

Last name
7. Social security tips

f. Employee address and ZiP code
9. Advance EIC payment
11. Nonqualified plans
13. Statutory

Document 12-5

PMB 68, Box 10003 Saipan, MP 96950


I $


Form 2006

Wage and Tax



14a. Other







Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 6 of 18


Power of Attorney

586 57 3970

(Rev. MllPh 2Ò04)
Departmeripf .the'Tréisury

and Declaration of Representative,
Type or ¡Jrhit. ~.

Power of Attorney

OMBNo: 1'545-0150 For lRSUsè Only
.Receivèd bY:


lrit.miì 'ÍlevenuaSeMce

Seethe separae instnictlòns,


Câulon:'.Forr.'2S48witl not tJe fJot¡ie for

Táxpayer int9fatiôn. Tåkpayer(s) mqst sign and

any plitpsé qthertban.representation befq~theIRS; date this fQrttlôn page 2, ìii:e~..


taxpayer namef$)

and address


v nurner(s)



Employer identicaion


, ,

CIO Fallon



PMB 504, PO Box 10000

Saipan, MP 96950
herebyappoint(s) the following representatwe(s) as attomey(s),ln-fEiCÌ1

DaYtime telephon~ numl;er

Plan ri~mber(jfapplicablé)

2 Representative(s) must sîgn anddåte' this form on page 2; Parr It

Ale:ts Fp,Üon, E:sq. PMB 504 P~O. B.òxl0JlO'

GAF Nq, ....9A9,l.:M.~~~lS....._............
Talephöne NQ: ."ífi19~.~;1.l'7~QQ.(;l_.......-Fax N():.....Je.S.~lS~S;I;~lAH~....~........
Check if new: Address 0 . Telephone No. 0 Fax

Saipan/Ml 9i9sÓ

and àddress

No. 0

.oAF No,' . ".C".."_.'.""'_"".~'..'_.'"_"".""'.'
;:~; n~..~"~:. ~~~~~ ~: :::: ~ ::~:~ ~~~::: :~: ~:::::~:

Cheek if riew:AddreSs 0 TelephórieNg;D F¿'(Nò. 0
CAF N9. .............................................. Telephone No, ...................................
Fax .Nô.; ................_.......__..._...._...~.......
Check if n.ew: Address 0 Telephöne No, o

FaiNQ, 0

tø represent thetaxpayer(s) oefòrê the Iriernel RevenL!e Serviçe: for the following tax matters:

3 Tax matters Týpe,Øftax (jn(jöfTe, Empk;iYrnentj EXcíse, eIt;)

orCivil Pl9nalty (seetheinstructionsior nne 3)

Tax' Form Number
(10:40, g41, 72ti,etç,l

Years) qr PerÎ(id(s)

(sethe jrlstructrons fqr line al
1st. ,2rid",3,:rd.,4t,Íl qiai:te:is


'941 l 941-SSr. :843

2.00.3 fhr0*7:I¡ ;a9;OØ

4. Speci1~ü~riøt'reÇQ.ti(l'çncentr~li~edAi.horatioij File (GAf). IHhe:¡.:iay/erQf:atiotney is 'fQr$.speçiffqL!sel1ot;f~qrqeg
o.n CW=;chec;. thie bQ.x;Seeth.è,ln.stiûGtJ$ê:'4. Spe,CiiÖiJ~sriQÜe.cgrC:e~enGAF,. , , . .", . . ~D

~, .AÇts;alJhoned. Tlièrepreeijtøtívê$,qrìEea to. rSei\é Mdrn"S¡p.eÇtcgriJl9eñtiarteiihfO:rrñeti,ÇÏì:~ç¡.fQP~rf(jrm .~ñy

and.aU ectsthat J.(w~,caì':p:eiiQnr:twìthl'speqt. tojhaLi: m~ttørsøe$q~bedon I ine~i :føn,xarnpje;the,aut~oriI: ta $i~J'-eny
f9rqi$PI9Sur~Ot.tæ, rêturns::orreturn ìntòrmatìon,:tinÜbird par.:$'eethe ne . instructions fQr moreinformatiQn, .

=~~~aripgw~~Bt~q~st11~ir~~~~~ ..'~$~~tiM~~~WÎ?i~i;ef~& ~~N h~~~r~¿~ón~~:'óilP~.~1tJ~~~e&i~~
irrfit~ SitUa~ti:óìÍs','SeeijneriölÏèd~:t¡ri ptø~tør ónpàge,~ Ciftheir( Jpris~ Ar,øbtòll~; kißiliaJméy'øhlý'te ., .
taxpayel":to theextent-provtdeç in seotion1Q;3(d) of CirvuJar23Q. Seethee5 inßtriçtions.forrestiictions o:nt(l mattet$

EXoëtiõris. MiinenrtlléQ' lëtürh 'rê .ârèr câiïhõt 'signeñy'd6cuniênt fo( 'axpàýêr antI may drily ($' 'rëSêrtt ta'

partners. .

Cistany'speciñc.additions or-deietions to: theaCts.otheiwiSe.autl1o.iedin this power of-atorney:. ____'-~._..".."....""."_.'-_..".,
--'.. ;..;..' ...::......,; ..;" i;...... .. .. _"..:..;.... "'.... __ 'I:. ~ ....;,::.:... _.;'; ..~_ ~..;... ..:;;;' ....'.. -.;.,,,.. '" "'';'_ _:.,._;...,; :,;;.;;.' ..'....... ....._.;,_....~ .'.~ _.. _ _..'......... ___...... ;.:......... ';-... -....i ....O;....~.. :0...,;:.. ~'.... ,;';' .. "'_ _ __:... .... _ ....~..;,.... ... '".. ""." ......,..~ "! ': .. 00-'" ""-... .....~ -~.. ":........~ :!.":"" ,".":-" -." ---., :-.."" ....:-~". -..":..- "',- ---.... -.. ......":..~ "~".-""" ~ -.... ...... '!. -."l'.o: -~ ..,:~ - ~'".~'''' ..-.- 1" ~ ~ ...~.. ~"'.." ~....._ -'.- - "._.:; "! _-: _.... ':'_':.... ,:" ...~_.... ': .....": "!.

..-:~-_.... ....... ""'.. ~- ~',':;-,"!. :-....-:". ,"'. - ':'' -~,. ,:.~.~~.~:".......,. ........ ~_.. ,:...,: ......':.~~... "'....... ":...:: .~.~.... ':'':- -...-. -.....""j-.. '':....~:'..''.. ~..'" "'-....- "''i--;'":'':''':'": - "'''..... ......... .:,,"~:"-.'I ............- ..~..._.-- ~... .._~ -.'

6' Receipt ofl'fûnd efiecki:.. Ifyou want fö': aùtÏïon:zera reprientatìve named on 'lítié~ffö recèiV~, aur NOT TO ENDORSE

Oii.cAsH, refund checks; fnitial here' . iist thanameofthat representatÎve. b.elow:
çat.,Nçi,,11 ~i¡ci

. Name' of reresentativéto. rèCê.iverefundcheèkfs)
tór Prvaq''At; .apc; Pà~rW9rI(F!e.(lUttI9n Nl?trae-isise pàge'.~ ~f.tfe in.
Fòrh' 2S'4$ lIe~,'HOQ4ì



Page re


Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM
FÒlm ge4 (Rey,3~2ùÇ)
7 Notices ari communications., Original notices

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 7 of 18
páge 2


586 57 3970
and other writtenconìmunications will bésel1t toyöuarid ä copy to


fir$t representative listed 011 line 2.

a Ifyoii alsq Wänttt¡e eee,opa representative Iisted toreçeive a copy ofnqtiGes arid cÓrrmqnicatiónr¡, ctieçktl:is h9X . ... ~

b If you do not want any noticèS or communications sent to. YOiJr rèprasentatiìie(s), çheikthìsbøx ....... ...0
'S Retentionlrevocation of prior power(sl of attorney. The filfng of this power of attorney poWar(s) ofattorneyqri file w.ith the-Internal ReveriueSeivicefqrthesåm.è taxmatters åndyears qr thisdo.G.ument If you do not want to revoke YOU MUST ATiÀ.CH A coPY OF ANYPOWÉFl OF a prior power

automatically revokes all earlier

covered by

of attorney;.,check here. . . .. . . . . . . . ... 0


9 Signature of taxayer(s),lf a ta, matter concerns ajoiht return, both husband'ahd wife must sign if joint representation

is reqiiested, otherWise, see, the instructions. If signed by a corporate; partner, guardian; tax maters partner; executor;
reçEliver,aclministrator, or trustee¡ on behalf

of the of the tåxpayer.taxpayer, I.certifythat I have the auttiorf to execute this forman behalf . ..

... '.C .J21/Jff- --fIJ/).- ..v)1¿L -- ... 00" Co - _.. 0.'" ._"_


"-"'Dâtg;'. , _._....._...-T¡trødnr.ipcpii~åb.i$)-.-..........
_.- p;ihtnèt;ê -¿r t~P~;;;;;-f~ö~'I¡ ~ê '1'ir~thè~- th;;h.rhdMdü~i .--

6J7- i. S e.~';.

....... - .......... ,,........_..:.. .....- ,;........'..._._- -_...'----- ,;...... ..........- ...._Print

PIN Number



.... .-... ..~."... Pri~ht~i\fåmè"' ... ... ... - .""...

PIN Numbet


I' peGlar~tion of Repre.sentative
Cauton: Students wifha,speciäJorderto. repre.sent taxayers ìnQuafifed Low Income

Taxpayer Clinics or the .student Tax Clinic.

PrögRirt, ~èt,thø. iRstrrÇtróns fqr Peiit II: .
Under penalties

of petjiJry, I deC"arethat:
praCtice before the Internal

. i am not currently undersl.spensionol' disbarment from .. I amawaieofregnletio.nsc;ontâirieÇ in Treaài:rY Dèpai:mentG:rènlâtN.p,

Revenue Service;, 23q(:31 CFR,. Pärt 1:0), esarrenq$d~coricêtníng

tne:pr¡;ctic~ òfettari;eýs, cêi:ifiéd piJQljccaçcounta1lts,éiitqllèP agents; enrolleqä¡s, ariq t)th'e:rs;

. I âmi;lihorÏ;~ tò $pre~iit tneJ$èpåýer(s) ìdémtifieQ in Pa.ít I fqr thet~'fnilttet(J $peejfi$d th,ere¡i¡tiâ
. t am, Qné,

dfthe fc;lIòwing:
in good standíhgofthe bar of the highest court ofthe'junsdiction shown

a Atfomey-a member


bCertlTled Public Accountant-duly qualiTled topractic.e as a certifièdpubilc..accountantin tneJurisdietionshown below.
c Enrolled Agent.-nroiïed as anagènt under the reqUlrementsofTreaäury Department:Circulartio:23Ö.
4 Offjøei'''à.',:P(låtiÇJtr'9ffjcêr Cif the twcpe.yet.s QrgSiT1i¿ätjö.n.,

e. Pu.ii- Tirne EITP!ôye$afYli-irieèmplöy'ee:of th,fj t~pey'øt. f F;;ïiHy fyemj;r-.¡a i'einfoeraf'hl:taXpaYèi;'s immêpii:tèfamITy (i.e.,spÓUse, p(afent,chjld, ~rQtheff o¡!siä.teq.
9 EntPlì~d A9taaty"-óti¡lJèÇe$ ~nactqaíy' ~~y thê~ø.¡ntßoaid fot tlieEti:rqlJtfènt of ;ttttarfea üntI~t¿g: i.LS:q, 124? (the
authority to praátice before the Service is limited by

section 10.3(d) of'rieasury DepartmentCÙcular No. 230).

It Urìeitolièd.R.turnPrèpäter;...fhë: 'à.üthöljtytd pràctíCe. before fhè In'ternal R'évenl.è:8érVîdls limit bytrèäSUry bèpàrtment :ëircular No; 23ô¡seetion 1Ò.7(c)t1)(vii~; You must have prepared the-return inquesibnand'the return must be under
e)(arrinati~n by the ia$., $ee llneni:olle Røtum Preparer on

rage 2'Qftheïnstr,ugtÎpns.,



ElE RET.URNEI)"$è$ thë. Parj II inW~cfi9ii~.

..utisdiGtjon .(stÊlte)òr

abóvØ I$tter £5H)







--~~ÇL::- ~::,
.. '-"

../' /.. "-r"L'L (/

IOaQs- 01

FOr 2848 (Rev.3c;W04).


Page 7

.M Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 8 of 18


G 1023 6269scHN7$,0921 4M09 0 9 21 i 1920341 2( (..o( ~(24 ..';



Page %

Case 1:08-cv-00269-CCM

Document 12-5

Filed 07/29/2008

Page 9 of 18

April 17, 2007

PMB 504 P.O. BOX 10000

ALEXIS FALLON. ESQ. TEL: (670) 323-0061 FAX: (670) 323-1061

SAIPAN, MP 96950

Internal Revenue Service 11601 Roosevelt Blvd Philadelphia, PA 19114

Dp Nl02
Att: J. McCandless

Dear Mr. McCandless,

Please note that ths letter is to serve as the formal opinon letter attached to all of the
Form 843 requests for refud of overpayment of the Federal Insurance Deposit Act


contributions (FICA) that were sent by my office earlier this week. Each application contains a Form 843 for each ta yea along with their identity and the relevant W-2's. In the Form 843 it references ths Legal Opinion. If you could note that in your receipt of
all the refud clais that this is the legal opinion so referenced.

1. All applicãnts have filed a Form 843 for each tax year.

2. All applicants have attached their W-2 forms to their respective Form 843s

to the extent that it is in their possession.
3. To the extent

that the IRS desires to know their filing status for income tax

puroses, the client wil provide ths data on request, or alternatively, the IRS can

contact the CNM Division of Revenue and Taxation and request verification of

4. None of the applicants have filed U.S. income. tax retus. . Rather, all

applicants filed income tax retus with the CNM Division of Revenue and
Taxation as provided by IRe Section 935 and Covenant Section 601.




i I"j



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All of the applicants are similarly situated with the same immigration status: Each applicant is a non U.S. Citizen that is a curent or former CN contract worker. A Copy

the each applicant's passport has been attached to their refund claim.

All of the applicant were issued U.S. Social Security cards with the legend "Valid For

Work Only With DRS Authorization" or "Valid For Work Only With INS
Authorization." This legend requires the card holder to present a valid U.S. work visa to

complete an employment eligibility "Form 1-9." None of the applicants have
successfully completed Form 1-9.

First and foremost, the geographic definition of FICA does not include the CNMI. This is directly contrar to how the United States Congress has applied FICA to all the other
U.S. Possessions. Secondly, the IRS has never promulgated any regulations in regard to

the applicability of FICA to the CNMI. There is scant regulatory guidance as to why the FICA tax should apply to the CNM. The Covenant between the U.S. and the CNMI is clearly ambiguous with regard to the application of FICA to contract workers permtted to work only in the CNM. It is clearly ambiguous because Congress never addressed the
fudamental differences that exist between Guam and the CNMI. This ambiguity creates

an impossibility of a self-executing provision of the Covenant.




1. Application of Federal Insurance Contributions Act
The Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA), 26 U.S.C. §§ 3101-3127, supports the Federal program of Old-age, Surivors, Disabilty Insurance ("Social Security") and the Federal program of hospital inSYance ("Medicare"). This tax is collected on services
performed by an employee "withi the United States." 26 U.S.C. § 3121(b). FICA

obligates the employer to match any of its employee's FICA contributions. The term "United States" is specifically defined for this statute in Section 3121 (e). The Section
provides that:
Section 3121 ( e) State, United States, and citizen.
For purposes of

this ChapterColumbia, the Commonwealth

(1) State. The term "State" íncludes the District of

of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and American Samoa. (2) United States. The term "United States" when used in the geographical sense Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and includes the Commonwealth of
American Samoa.



The terms "State" and "United States" define the geography of the IRS' collection authority to administer the FICA ta. As a consequence of ths definition, FICA applies by its own terms to the Virgin Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico and' American Samoa and



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"Social Security Taxes" (i.e. taxes imposed by FICA) and is therefore collected in those territories in the same maner as the States.

The Commonwealth of the Nortern Mariana Islands ("CNMI") was never added to the
defintion of "the United States", or to the term "state" as found in Section 3121(e).

Without clear Congressional action amending Section 3121 to include the CNMI in the definition of either state or geography sections, it creates an ambiguity. Unlike what occured legislatively in the other U.S Territories, where there was clear legislative
action. This omission is a significant distinction from the other Terrtories.

At ths time, it would be prudent to review the enabling legislation makg FICA
applicable to the U.S. Territories. In every instance of the application to the terrtories
(Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Guam and American Samoa), there was a Congressional act that specifically amended the Internal Revenue Code to applyFICA to those Territories.
When the U.S. Congress applied FICA to the Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, it did so in the Revenue Act of 1950, Pub. L. No. 50-814. The House Committee Report to this Act stated:


The House bil and Senate amendment both provided that, notwthstading any other provision of law respecting taxation in the Virgin Islands or Puerto Rico, all taxes imposed by the Self-Employment Contributions Act shall be collected by the Bureau of Internal Revenue under the direction of the Secreta of Treasur and shall be paid into the Treasur of United States as internal-revenue collections. H. R. Committee Report H. R. 8920 (emphasis added).

With regards to Gua and American Samoa, U.S. Pub. L. No 86-778 Sec. 103, specifically amended section 202(i) of the Social Security Act by strikng out "Puerto Rico or the Virgin Islands" and inserted in lieu thereof "the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam and American Samoa." See also H.R. Rep.No. 2165, 86th Cong., 2d Sess. 18 (1960) (conference report)(Guam and American Samoa); and S. Rep.No. 1669, 81st Cong., 2d Sess. 17 & 292 (1950) (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). All these amendments were eventually codified into what is today, IRC Section

As stated previously in the CNMI matter, the U.S. Congress has not taken any legislative

action to amend the Internal Revenue Code, as Congress has done for Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam' and the Virgin Islands. As for the argument of legislative
oversight, such a position is incredulous as the U.S. Congress has amended IRC Section
3121 seventeen times since the passage of

the Covenant in 1978. In 2003, P.L. 108-121;

in 2000, P.L. 106-554; in 1998, P.L. 105-206; in 1997, P.L. 105-61; in 1996, P.L. 104188; in 1994, P.L. 103-387; in 1993, P.L. 103-178; in 1992, P.L. 102-572, in 1990, P.L.

101-508; in 1989, P.L. 101-239; in 1988, P.L. 100-647, in 1987, P.L. 99-514, in 1984,


P.L. 98-369; and in 1983, P.L. 98-118. Congress. had no fewer than seventeen
opportties to specifically include the CNM in IRC Section 3121(e). However, in the




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same timeframe the U.S. Congress has amended other sections of the IRC to include the CNMl, for example IRC Sections 881, 931, 935 and 937.
B. Effect of

Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America
the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of

The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands is unque among the U.S. insular possessions. As the terms of this political union were negotiated between the paries and

ratified in a plebiscite, and subsequently approved by the Senate and the full U.S.
Congress in Pub. 1. No. 94-241, 90 stat. 263 (1976), codified at 48 U.S.c. §1801. This
agreement is commonly known as the Covenant To Establish a Commonwealth of the

Nortern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America

On November 3, 1986, with all of the terms of the Covenant in effect, the United States terminated the Trusteeship Agreement with a Presidential Proclamation. United States ex. reI. Richards v. Guerrero, 4 F.3d 749 (9th Cir. 1993). Curently, authority of the United States towards the CNMI arises solely from the Covenant. Hilbloom v. United

States, 896 F.2d 426 (9th Crr. 1990). To fuher the goal of CNM self-governance,
Covenant Section 105 provides that cert provisions of the Covenant may only be

modified with the joint consent of the U.S. and the CNMI. With regards to taxation, immgration and minimum wage, the Covenant may be amended by unlateral action of


Congress, but only by specific reference to the relevant Covenant Sections.

i. Covenant Section 606(b) and the applicabilty of FICA
Covenant Section 606(b) provides that:
Those laws of

the United States which impose excise and self-employment

taxes to support or which provide benefits from the Unìted States Social

termínation of

Security System will on Januar 1 of the first calendar year following the the Trusteeship Agreement or upon such earlier date as may be agreed to by the Governent of the Northern Mariana Islands and the

Governent of the United States become applicable to the Northern
Mariana Islands as they apply to Guam. (Incorporating amendments

found in Pub. 1. No. 98-213, § 9)
Under this Section, one of

two possible conditions precedent must occur before Congress
precedent were either

has the right to apply FICA laws to the CNM. These conditions

the Truteeship between the United States and the governent of the Northern Mariana

(1) the termnatìon of the Trusteeship or (2) by an agreement prior to the termnation of
Islands. The language of Sectìon 606(b) is conspicuous with the use of the word "will".

This could be interpreted that Congress wished to create a self-executing provision for

the application of FICA to the CNMI upon the occurence of either of these events. Under this interpretation, when the Truteeship over the CNMI was termnated on


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November 3, 1986, the laws that impose excise and self-employment taxes could then be imposed.
The central issue of this matter is whether Covenant Section 606 (b) was sufficiently

clear to be self-executing, and even if this clause is found to be self-executing, did ths clause encompass the significant differences that exist between Gua and the CNMI.
Arguably, to rely on Section 606(b) exclusively as providing suffcient legislative FICA to the CN.M is in direct confict with the legislative authority for the application of history surounding the application of FICA to the other U.S. Possessions. As stated previously, in every instance Congress specifically amended the applicable sections of the Internal Revenue Code to apply FICA to these areas. Even if ths Covenant section

provided sufcient legislative authority, it did not address the actual mechancs as to which Internal Revenue Code sections would apply and in what maner these sections
would apply.

Moreover, Section 606(b) by itself does not amend the existing statutes that apply FICA to the CNMl If it did, IRC Section 3121 ( e) would include the CNM in the definition of "state" and "United States" in its laundry list. The Research Institute of America and other ta legal authorities have never referenced Covenant Section 606(b) as amending IRC Section 3121(e), because if they did so, they would have included the CNMI in

(J '-

Section 3121(e).

The phrase "as they apply to Guam" creates a latent ambiguty. Guam is not in charge of its own immigration. All of the contract workers who are in Gua obtain a U.S. Visa

issued by the Deparment of Homeland Security (replacing the Immigration
Natualization Service (IS)). Unlike Guam, contract workers enter the CNM enter on a

FICA to CNMI CNMI Immgration visa. Due to ths critical difference, the application of contract workers is at minimum questionable and more likely than not unsupportble with the present legislative statutes for the reasons stated below.

In 2004, the U.S. Social Security Administration (SSA) revers'ed its opinon of coverage

of CNMI foreign contract workers. Whle the enabling language of the revised
regulations states that ths is the first time that U.S. Social Securty has addressed the coverage issues of CN.M Foreign Contract workers it is in error. Attached hereto is an
excerpt of

the Van Cleve Memoranduml, it this memorandum Ruth Van Cleve references "HHS advises informally that its regulations and guidelines treat national and citizens so

that Samoans in the States would thereby be eligible. This section, however, has the effect of excluding the large alien population in the Nortern Mariana Islands, where

such aliens, who have entered the Nortern Marianas for a temporar period for
employment, are believed now to outnumber local residents. Because under the Covenant federal immigration laws do not apply to the Northern Mariana Islands, these workers are

not aliens "lawflly admitted for permanent residence" as the phrase is used in federal law. They thus do not meet the statutory requirement, and alien temporar workers in the Nortern Mariana Islands are therefore ineligible for SSI benefits. (citing HHS ".....In
(")' "'-

i Ruth Van Cleve, Departent ofInterior Memorandum no. 42-3.



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order to be eligible for SSI, a non-citizen (or national) must be either (1) "Lawflly
for permanent residence" or (2) "permanently residing ... under the color of law" (other wise known as PRUCOL). However, (any) suggestion that admission of guest
admitted ., .

workers under the laws of the NM would meet the first test is incorrect "lawfl
admssion for a temporary period, no matter how long, does not satisfy ths test.")
It is Congress' job to clarif the application of ths tax and not the Agency's sole

discretion to apply jurisdiction. This analysis reversed their prior decision in the SSI . benefits area and is not considering the express exclusion of the CNMI from the Immigration Nationality Act found in the Covenant Section 503(a) where the Covenant
excludes the application of INA Section 506.1
ii. Without an explicit statutory amendment to IRe Section 312 l(e)

, the

Internal Revenue Service does not have any jurisdiction to enforce the
collection of this tax on CNM Contract workers who are not present in the United States and not authorized to work in the United States.
The territorial application of the FICA tax would, if IRC Section 3121(e) had been jurisdiction. Qi.te simply, without a specifc amendment to IRC amended, satisfy in rem Section 3121(e), the IRS lacks in rem jurisdiction to enforce the collection of the tax agaist CNMI Contract Workers who are not present in the United States and not


authorized to work in the United States. The IRS has exclusive administration authority

over the Intern Revenue Code, as codified in Title 26. IRC Section 7801 provides that

"except as otherwse provided by law, the adrstration and enforcement of ths title
shall be performed by or under the supervision of the Secretar of the Treasur." So failing explicit statutory authority of granting jurisdiction in rem, the secondary method of taxation is jursdiction in personåm.

With regards to possible in personam jursdiction, there is no explicit statutory authority over persons in the CNMI. Typically, IRC Section 876 grants the IRS jurisdiction over
resident aliens in U.S. possessions. For reasons stated below, IRC Section 876 is not applicable to the CNMI.

The Tax Reform Act of 1986 (TRA 1986) amended IRC Section 876 to provide that bona

fide residents of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa or CNMI would be taxed as resident aliens. However, Section 1277 (b) of the TRA 1986, P.L. 99-5143, fuer
2 Yang Bi Kei v. American Intern') Knitters Corp., 789 F. Supp 1074 (D.N.Mar.!. 1992).

3 Application of Oct. 22, 1986 amendments; special rules. Act Oct. 22, 1986, P.L. 99-514, Title XII,

Subtitle G, § 1277, 100 Stat. 2600; Nov. 10, 1988, P.L. 100-647, Title I, § 1012(z), 102 Stat. 3530,

¡ i

(a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this Section, the amendments made by this subtitle (for full classification, consult uses Tables volumes) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986. (b) Special rule for Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to Guam, American Samoa, or

the Nortern Mariana Islands (and to residents thereof and corporations created or




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provided that' "the amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to Guam,

American Samoa, or the Nortern Mariana Islands (and to residents thereof and
corporations created or organzed therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing

agreement under Section 1271 (note to this Section) is in effect between the United States
and such possession." (Emphasis added.)

TRA 1986 Sections 1271, 1272, and 1277 are encompassed in TRA 19R6 Title XII -Foreign Tax Provisions, Subtitle G -- Tax Treatment of

Possessions. TRA 1986 Sections

1271 and 1272 are in par I of subtitle G. Par I specifically addresses the "Treatment of Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands." TRA 1986 Section 1271, does not appear in, or make any changes to the IRC. Rather, that provision grants Guam,
American Samoa, and the CNM, under certain conditions, the right to enact their own
ta laws independent of the IRC with respect to income (1) from sources withn, or

effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business withi, the possession, or
(2) received or accrued by a resident of the possession.4 TRA 1986 Section 1271(b) makes that grant of authority applicable to Guam, American Samoa, or the CNMI

provisional on the existence of an implementing agreement between the United States
and such possession.5

TRA 1986 Section 1272 amends old Section 876 as well as other Code provisions not pertinent here. In TRA 1986 Section 1277(b), Congress makes the application of those


amendments conditional on thè existence of the requied implementation agreement

between the United States and the specified possession, but only as to Guam, American
Samoa, and the CNM, and the residents and 'corporations thereof. 6

Therefore, the Tax Reform Act of 1986 rules coordinating United States and specified possessions (including CNM) taxation generally apply to taxable years beginning afer. 1986, or as soon as the applicable possession agrees to cooperate with the United States in tax matters. 7 Consequently, as long as an implementing agreement is not signed between the United States and the CNMI, Section 876 of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 does not apply to the CNM.
A carefu review of the language of Covenant Section 606(b) wil demonstrate that there
is no conferment to the Internal Revenue Service for enforcement which would

undermie the deference afford to U.S Treasur regarding promulgation of regulations.

But U.S. Treasur has never promulgated reguations on this issue. The only regulations that have been proposed is by the Social Security Administration.

organized therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement under Section
1271 is in effect between the United States and such possession.

26 USCS § 931 note. 4 TRA 1986 sec. 1271(a). 5 Specking v. Comm'r, 117 T.C. 95 (2001).

i 1 i

6 ¡d.

7 Also See Joint Committee on Taxation, Summary ofH.R, 3838 (Tax Reform Act of i 986) as Reported by

the Senate Committee on Finance (JCS-12-86), June.S, 1986. .


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If there is an ambiguity as to the legislative language indicates, then in accordance with


Chevron u.s.A. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984), "If


intent of Congress is clear, that is the end of the matter; for the cour, as well as the
agency, must give effect to the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress. If, however, the cour determines Congress has not directly addressed the precise question at issue, the
court does not simply impose its ovv construction on the statue, as would be necessar in

the absence of an admnistrative interpretation. Rather, if the statute is silent or
ambiguous with respect to the specific issue, the questions for the cour is whether the agency's answer is based on a permssible construction of the statute." Id. at 843. In Cottage Savings Ass 'n v. Commissioner, 499 U.S. 554, 560-561, 113 L.Ed. 2d 589, 111 S. Ct. 1503 (1991), the Supreme Cour conspicuously did not cite Chevron and appeared to apply the traditional rule of tax deference: "Because Congress had delegated to the

Commissioner the power to promulgate 'all needful rules and regulations for the
enforcement of the (Internal revenue Code), 26 U.S.C. § 7805(a), we must defer to his
regulatory interpretations of

the Code so long as they are reasonable." Id., at 560-61

Please note the enabling language in the application of FICA to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands where Congress was quite explicit in its conferment of authority of the U.S. Treasur to enforce and retain the collection of monies for FICA. The same is tre
for the amendments for Guam and American Samoa. The absence of an explicit conferment coupled with the failure of Covenant Section 606(b) to amend the relevant

C-) '.-

Internal Revenue Code sections, means thè IRS does not have the requisite explicit jurisdictional authority to enforce the FICA tax as to the CNM Contract Workers who are not admitted in the United States and are not authorized to work in the United States.

IÜ. The Tax Status of CNM Contract Workers
As stated previously, Covenant Section 606(b) contains ambiguous language that states that excise taxes and self-employment taxes will become applicable to the CNMI inJe same maner as Guam. This language does not address the significant difference between the CNM and Guam. As stated previously, the CNM Governent controls its ovv immgration. In fact, Social Security regulations prohibit the issuance of Social Security Cards for work without the satisfaction of Deparent of Homeland Security (replacing Immigration Naturalization Service) Visa permttng an individual to work. 20

CFR Section 422.104. Section 422.104 states, tht an alien is eligible for a Social

Security number where "An alien lawfly admitted to the United States for permanent residence or under other authority of law permtting you to work in the United States (§ 422.105 describes how we determine if a nonimmgrant alien is permitted to work in the United States)" 20 CFR 422.l04(a)(2)(emphasis addedJ.
In fact the Social Security Regulation creates a presumption of authority of a

nonimmgrant alien to engage in employment if the individual alien provides a Form 194. "...(IJf your Form 1-94 does not reflect a classification permtting work, you must submit a curent document authorized by the Deparent of Homeland Security that verifies authorization to work has been granted' e.g. an employment authorization



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document, to enable SSA to issue an SSN card that is valid for work." 20 C.F. R.

Since the CNM controls its own immgration policies, CNM contract workers are not admitted into the United States for work puroses. Covenant Section 503 states that the 8
immigration and natualization laws are inapplicable to the Nortern Mariana Islands.

From the plain meanng of Covenant 503, the only exceptions from the inapplicability of the Immgration Natualization Act are those listed in Covenant Section 506. As you wil note, there is no reference to the CNM work visas issued to the alien contract workers being designated or approved by the INS. In Yang Bi Kei v. American International Kntters Corporation et. al., 789 F. Supp. 1074 (D.N.Mar.I. 1992), the U.S. District Cour considered the issue of the imigration power of the CNMI. "Unlike any of the several States and Territories or Commonwealths, Congress has granted the CNMI authority over its oWn immigration."

Foreign contract workers enter into the CNMI on a CNMI work visa that does not
provide them access to, nor the right to work in the United States. (See Memorandum of

Agreement Between the U.S. Deparent of Interior, Offce of Insular Affairs and the Commonwealth of the Nortern Marana Islands, signed September, 2003; see also
Section 101(a)(38) of the Immigration

and Nationality Act, 8 U.sC. §1101(a)(38)). So


8 Covenant Section 506 states the following:

(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Subsection 503(a), upon the effective date of this

Section the Nortern Mariana Islands wil be deemed to be a par of the United States
this Section.

under the Immigration and Nationality Act, as amended for the following purposes only, and the said Act wil apply to the Nortern Mariana Islands to the extent indicated in each
of the foIlowing Subsections of

(b) With respect to children born abroad to United States citizen or non-citizen national

parents permanently residing in the Northern Mariana Islands the provisions of Séction
301 and 308 of

the said Act will apply.

immediate relativesll (as defined in Subsection 20I(b) (c) With respect to aliens who are ii of the said Act) of United States citizens who are permanently residing in the Northern the said Act wil apply, commencing when a claim Mariana Islands all the provisions of is made to entitlement to "immediate relative" status. A person who is certified by the Government of the Northern Mariana Islands both to have been a lawful permanent
resident of the Northern Mariana Islands and to have relationship denoted herein on the effective date of been admitted to the United States for lawful permanent

had the "immediate relative"

this Section wil be presumed to have that date without residence as of
the said

the requirement of any of the usual procedures set fort in the said Act. For the purposes

of the requirements of judicial naturalization, the Northern Mariana fslands will be
deemed to constitute a State as defined in Subsection IOI(a) paragraph (36) of

Act. The Courts of record of thè Northern Mariana Islands and the District Court for the

Northern Mariana Islands will be included among the court specified in Subsection 310(a) of the said Act and wil have jurisdiction to naturalize Rersons who become
eligible under this Section and who reside within their respective jurisdictions.
(d) With respect to persons who will become citizens or nationals of this Covenant or under this Section the loss of

the United States under Article II of

nationality provisions ofthe said Act wil apply.

. 9


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while Social Security has been issuing cards to CNM Contract Workers, it does so with the following admonishment stamped upon the cards, "Valid for Work Only with DHS

(formerly INS) Authorization". This stamp is on every single card issued to CNM Contract workers. The very face of the Social Security Card upholds this analysis that working in the CNM is not workig in the United States. See Evidence Requirements
20 C.F. R. 422.107. Section 422.107 states clearly the need for DHS work visas that will allow for the issuance of a Social Securty Card for an alien. None of the Social Security

regulations acknowledge that the issuance of CNMI work visas satisfies the prerequisites

for obtaining a right to work and pay Social Security Tax in the United States. The
absence of regulations is the result of Congressional failure to amend the Federal

Insurance Contribution Act to include the CNMI and the application of the associated
provisions of the Social Security Act.

The failure of the drafer's action in Pub. L. 98-213 (the Amendment to §606(b) of the
Covenant), is that it created more confsion and did not provide definitive guidance to

the treatment of persons who are admitted in the CNM on work visas not issued by the
Deparent of Homeland Security, but by the Commonwealth Deparent of

Immigration. Moreover, while the amendment is reflective of Congressional intent with respect to the application of various social security taxes, it is not a specific amendment
that is requied for statutory constrction in matters of taxation. At best, ths section

could be termed "tax by implication", which not only violates the U.S. Constitution, but
also fails to provide the necessa statutory authority for the Internal Revenue Service to
administer the ta.

Based on the foregoing, the Covenant between the U.S. and the CNMI is clearly ambiguous with regard to the application of FICA to contract workers permtted to work

only in the CNM. This ambiguity coupled with Congressional failure to amend IRC Section 312 i to include the CNMI creates a reasonable basis for the refud requests for
their respectìve FICA contributions.
This matter wil be fuer addressed in other communcations with the Internal Revenue

Service and the Social Security Admistration. Please be advised that ths legal opinon

covers all the applicants for a refud claims from this offce as referenced in each Form 843 processed by this offce.



Fallon Law Offices



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